Option 2: Wal-Mart stores are now being sued for gender-based discrimination in hiring practices, promotions, and pay. Students are shown a chart from a recent newspaper article comparing the salaries of men and women at Wal-Mart in different occupational categories along with the percentage of each job category that is male or female. Students discuss whether they believe this chart is evidence of gender-based discrimination. (If they do not, they are asked what type of evidence they would need to see to be convinced that a company was practicing illegal discrimination against women.) This discussion often leads to many students suggesting that the women at Wal-Mart just weren't working as hard or were not as smart as the male employees. This is used to launch into an exploration of research-based findings about gender differences and careers along with myths about working women.
That doesn't mean that readers can't have an existential crisis of their own. " Each time we run Goofus and Gallant , we include the line, 'There’s some of Goofus and Gallant in us all,'" Burke says. "When the Gallant shines through, we show our best self. We also include a few 'Goofus and Gallant Moments' from kids, where they tell us about times when they felt like either Goofus or Gallant. These two aspects of the feature support the theory that both characters reside within the same individual, and it’s up to that person to choose how to behave."
As an example, consider determining whether a suitcase contains some radioactive material. Placed under a Geiger counter , it produces 10 counts per minute. The null hypothesis is that no radioactive material is in the suitcase and that all measured counts are due to ambient radioactivity typical of the surrounding air and harmless objects. We can then calculate how likely it is that we would observe 10 counts per minute if the null hypothesis were true. If the null hypothesis predicts (say) on average 9 counts per minute, then according to the Poisson distribution typical for radioactive decay there is about 41% chance of recording 10 or more counts. Thus we can say that the suitcase is compatible with the null hypothesis (this does not guarantee that there is no radioactive material, just that we don't have enough evidence to suggest there is). On the other hand, if the null hypothesis predicts 3 counts per minute (for which the Poisson distribution predicts only % chance of recording 10 or more counts) then the suitcase is not compatible with the null hypothesis, and there are likely other factors responsible to produce the measurements.