Immuno essay

In addition to microtiter plates, immunoassays are also configured as rapid tests, such as a home pregnancy test. Like microtiter plate assays, rapid tests use antibodies to react with antigens and can be developed as MoAb-PoAb sandwich formats, competitive inhibition formats, and antigen-down formats. With a rapid test, the antibody and antigen reagents are bound to porous membranes, which react with positive samples while channeling excess fluids to a non-reactive part of the membrane. 
 Rapid immunoassays commonly come in 2 configurations: a lateral flow test where the sample is simply placed in a well and the results are read immediately; and a flow through system, which requires placing the sample in a well, washing the well, and then finally adding an analyte-colloidal gold conjugate and the result is read after a few minutes. One sample is tested per strip or cassette. 
 Because rapid tests are faster than microtiter plate assays, require little sample processing, are often cheaper, and generate yes/no answers without using an instrument, they often used in the field by non-laboratory people testing whole samples. However, rapid immunoassays are not as sensitive nor can they be used to accurately quantitate an analyte. (Self-monitoring of blood glucose levels by diabetics is considered quantitative rapid testing, however, immunoassay technology is not used for these tests.) All rapid immunoassay tests can be converted to a microtiter plate assay, but not all microtiter plate assays can be converted to a rapid test.

Immuno essay

immuno essay

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