Urdu continued its role in developing a Muslim identity as the Islamic Republic of Pakistan was established with the intent to construct a homeland for Islamic believers. Several languages and dialects spoken throughout the regions of Pakistan produced an imminent need for a uniting language. Because Urdu was the symbol of Islamic identity in Northern India, it was selected as the national language for Pakistan. While Urdu and Islam together played important roles in developing the national identity of Pakistan, disputes in the 1950s challenged the necessity for Urdu as a national symbol and its practicality as the lingua franca. The significance of Urdu as a national symbol was downplayed by these disputes when English and Bengali were also accepted as official languages. In addition to the disagreements over the value of Urdu as a national language in Pakistan, recent Muslims in Asia question the necessity for the Urdu script to be distinctly different from the Hindi script. While early nineteenth century Muslims saw the Arabic script as part of their identity, certain modern Muslims choose to use a modified Hindi script in writing Urdu. Although Urdu was a distinct identity marker for Muslims in colonialist ruled India and a national symbol for Pakistan, its necessity has been put into question by modern Muslims in both India and Pakistan.